Introduction - Al-Qaeda, an international terrorist network, is considered the top terrorist threat to the United States. The group is wanted for its September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, as well as a host of lesser attacks. To escape the post-9/11 U.S.-led war in Afghanistan, al-Qaeda's central leadership fled eastward into Pakistan, securing a safe haven in loosely governed areas there. In July 2007, U.S. intelligence agencies found that the organization was regrouping and regaining strength in these tribal areasalong the border with Afghanistan, though targeted killings of senior al-Qaeda leaders have since diminished the group's command and control capabilities. In February 2009, the Director of National Intelligence Dennis C. Blair told lawmakers that the group's core "is less capable and effective than it was a year ago." But a number of affiliated groups have gained prominence in recent years, complicating the task of containing the organization.
What is al-Qaeda? - Al-Qaeda, Arabic for "The Base," is an international terrorist network founded by Osama bin Laden in the late 1980s. It seeks to rid Muslim countries of what it sees as the profane influence of the West and replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic regimes. After al-Qaeda's September 11, 2001, attacks, the United States launched a war in Afghanistan to destroy al-Qaeda's bases there and overthrow the Taliban, the country's Muslim fundamentalist rulers who harbored bin Laden and his followers. Like his predecessor George W. Bush, President Barack Obama has committed U.S. strategy to destroying al-Qaeda's safe haven in the Afghanistan-Pakistan region, and limiting the group's ability to strike U.S. targets.
What are al-Qaeda’s origins? - Al-Qaeda grew out of the Services Office, a clearinghouse for the international Muslim brigade opposed to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In the 1980s, the Services Office—run by bin Laden and the Palestinian religious scholar Abdullah Azzam—recruited, trained, and financed thousands of foreign mujahadeen, or holy warriors, from more than fifty countries. Bin Laden wanted these fighters to continue the "holy war" beyond Afghanistan. He formed al-Qaeda around 1988.
Where does al-Qaeda operate? -
Analysts believe [al-Qaeda] has trained most of the terrorist groups in Pakistan's tribal areas; it has introduced its practice of suicide bombings to both the Afghan and the Pakistani Taliban, as well as affiliated groups in Iraq, Yemen, and North Africa.
These groups share al-Qaeda's Sunni Muslim fundamentalist views. Intelligence officials and terrorism experts also say that al-Qaeda has stepped up its cooperation on logistics and training with Hezbollah, a radical, Iran-backed Lebanese militia drawn from the minority Shiite strain of Islam.
Who are al-Qaeda’s leaders? - According to a 1998 U.S. federal indictment, al-Qaeda is administered by a council that "discussed and approved major undertakings, including terrorist operations." At the top is bin Laden. Ayman al-Zawahiri, the head of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, is thought to be bin Laden's top lieutenant and al-Qaeda's ideological adviser. Abu Yahya al-Libi, a Libyan who was captured by Pakistani authorities in 2002 but managed to escape from U.S. prison in Afghanistan in 2005, has emerged as the public face of al-Qaeda and another top-level leader. (Reports that he was killed in a December 2009 airstrike were later rescinded). Some counterterrorism experts consider him a top strategist and a theological scholar, arguing that his religious scholarship makes him one of the most effective promoters of global jihad. Jarret Brachman, a former analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency, told The New York Times that al-Libi "has become the heir apparent to Osama bin Laden in terms of taking over the entire global jihadist movement."
Mustafa Abu al-Yazid, an Egyptian, is an original member of al-Qaeda's leadership council and has been an adviser to bin Laden for more than a decade. He served time in prison in the early 1980s with deputy leader al-Zawahiri for their role as conspirators in the 1981 assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. Another important figure is Saif al-Adel, an Egyptian, who is rumored to be under house arrest in Iran along with some other top leaders of the organization, including Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah, an Egyptian and financial officer of al-Qaeda. Adel and Abdullah are wanted for their role in the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, which killed more than 200 people.
The Jordanian radical Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who established the Sunni Muslim extremist group al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and directed a series of deadly terror attacks in Iraq-including the beheadings of kidnapped foreigners-was also associated with al-Qaeda. Zarqawi pledged his allegiance to bin Laden in October 2004, and bin Laden praised Zarqawi as "the prince of al-Qaeda in Iraq." Zarqawi was killed in a U.S. air strike near Baghdad in 2006. Abu Ayyub al-Masri, one of al-Zawahiri's disciples since joining the Egyptian Islamic Jihad in 1982, is believed to have succeeded Zarqawi as AQI leader. In North Africa, AQIM is headed by explosive expertAbdelmalek Droukdel. The Yemeni branch of al-Qaeda is run by Nasser al-Wahishi, a Yemeni citizen and former secretary to bin Laden. His deputy, Saeed al-Shihri, is a Saudi national repatriated from the Guantanamo Bay prison camp in Cuba.
U.S. officials say several top al-Qaeda leaders are in their custody. These include a senior lieutenant, Abu Zubaydah, who was captured in Pakistan in March 2002, and Abd al-Hadi al-Iraqi, a senior commander in Afghanistan. In March 2003, the alleged mastermind of the September 11 attacks, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and al-Qaeda's treasurer, Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi, were also captured in Pakistan. They, along with four others detained at Guantanamo Bay, were charged with murder, terrorism, and violating rules of war in February 2008.
"Al-Qaeda and its affiliates and allies 'remain dangerous and adaptive enemies' keen on attacking U.S. and European targets." – Dennis C. Blair, Director of National Intelligence
Besides being detained, several senior leaders in the network have died or have been killed in the U.S.-led war against terrorists. A senior al-Qaeda commander, Muhammad Atef, died in the U.S. air strikes in Afghanistan. Media reports said Abu Obaidah al-Masri, a senior al-Qaeda leader believed to be involved in the 2005 London subway and bus bombings and in planning attacks in Afghanistan, died of hepatitis in Pakistan in April 2008. In April 2006, Abdul Rahman al-Muhajir and Abu Bakr al-Suri, two ofal-Qaeda's top bomb makers (PDF), were killed in Pakistan. In January 2008, Abu Laith al-Libi, al-Qaeda's senior military commander and a key link between the group and its affiliates in North Africa, was killed in Pakistan's tribal areas in a secret U.S. missile strike. GlobalSecurity.org lists senior leaders who have been detained or killed; Longwarjournal.org documents high-value al-Qaeda and Taliban targets killed in U.S. air strikes in Pakistan since 2004.
How big is al-Qaeda? - It's impossible to say precisely, because al-Qaeda is decentralized. Estimates range from several hundred to several thousand members. According to the U.S. State Department's 2008 report on terrorism, while the largest concentration of senior al-Qaeda members now reside in Pakistan, the network incorporates members of AQI and other associates throughout the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa, Europe, and Central Asia who continue working to carry out attacks against U.S. and Western interests.
The international crackdown that followed the 9/11 attacks greatly cut into al-Qaeda's resources and many of al-Qaeda's former leaders were captured or killed, leading experts to question the relevance of al-Qaeda's central leadership. ThisBackgrounder points out how in these years al-Qaeda transformed from what was once a hierarchical organization with a large operating budget into an ideological movement. Whereas al-Qaeda once trained its own operatives and deployed them to carry out attacks, it is just as likely to inspire individuals or small groups to carry out attacks, often with no operational support from the larger organization. Experts say al-Qaeda is able to spread its ideology effectively through the Internet and al-Sahab, its media wing. As the director of national intelligence noted in his 2009 assessment, al-Qaeda and its affiliates and allies "remain dangerous and adaptive enemies" keen on attacking U.S. and European targets.
What major attacks has al-Qaeda been responsible for? - The group has targeted American and other Western interests as well as Jewish targets and Muslim governments it sees as corrupt or impious-above all, the Saudi monarchy. Al-Qaeda-linked attacks include:
Al-Qaeda is also suspected of carrying out or directing sympathetic groups to carry out the December 2007 bomb and suicide attacks in Algiers; May 2003 suicide attacks on Western interests in Casablanca, Morocco; the October 2002 nightclub bombing in Bali, Indonesia; and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf blamed al-Qaeda for two attempts on his life in December 2003. In December 2009, al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghrib kidnapped two Italian citizens (al-Jazeera) in Mauritania, claiming the abductions were to avenge Italy's involvement in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Earlier that month, three Spanish aid workers were also captured in Mauritania (CNN) by AQIM operatives; the group said that attack was because of AQIM opposition to the detention of fourteen Islamic militants in Spain, sentenced for involvement in the 2004 Madrid train bombing.